Hello and welcome to the history page. This week we will turn our
attention to the military event that stands out in collective island
memory as the single most dramatic episode to occur in the Pitiusan
theatre of civil war: the Republican attack on the Nazi battleship, the
Deutschland in the bay of Ibiza. This incident, terrible enough
in itself, towers to even greater proportions if we keep in mind that,
at the time of the attack, 1937, the brunt of military action had moved
away from the Pitiuses so that the islands, though still living in the
shadow of wartime, had been exempt from enemy attack for nearly a year.
The return of mortal bombings to the island at a time when assault was
least expected is one of the reasons why this event is generally
considered the cruellest cut of all. This battle was not, in fact, part
of a premeditated military stratagem against Ibiza, per se. Rather it
was the random result of a German ship being chased into the nearest
safe port - which happened to be Ibiza - by a Republican flotilla. But
we are getting ahead of ourselves.
The Militarization of Island Life
Before going on to examine the Deutschland incident, let us first
establish the military climate of the island during the months that
intervened between the National takeover on 20th September
1936 and the time of the attack. In addition to the unrelieved shortages
of food, fuel, manufactured goods and raw materials (which we discussed
last week), and developing parallel to the systematic witch-hunts of the
National warlords (which we will discuss next week), was an almost
complete militarization of island life both materially and socially.
is natural in any wartime society, news regarding the conduct of war
appeared daily in the local press and dominated every conversation.
Curfews were strictly enforced by the Prefecture of Passive Defence and
continual edicts were issued as to the proper course of action in case
of attack. At a more tangible level, two hydro-aviation stations were
installed, one in Ibiza and one in Formentera, to serve as ancillary
bases in air raids launched from Majorca against the mainland. Many
young Pitiusan men - as well as a good number of not-so-young men - were
sent to the front to replace casualties in the National ranks. Failure
to sign up at the recruitment office was considered tantamount to
political rebellion and was harshly persecuted by the Military Court. As
a deterrent to the evasion of military duty, all judicial proceedings
and subsequent sanctions against draft dodgers were publicly posted.
Although there seemed to be little chance of either Ibiza or Formentera
coming back into the spotlight of war, an elaborate defence system was
set up to guard against the possibility of a Republican attack. Look-out
points were established along the coast and bomb shelters were fitted
out in various strategic spots such as sa Talaia in Sant Josep
and other hard-to-reach areas. By mid-1937 there were as many as
twenty-one bomb shelters in Ibiza Town alone - a precaution which,
ironically, did not serve to safeguard the islanders against the
Deutschland incident due to the unexpectedness and rapidity of the
The Attack on the Deutschland
Rather than attempting to describe this incident with my paltry
second-hand words, I shall instead let the tale be told, with far
greater eloquence, by one who witnessed the battle in person, from
beginning to end. The following excerpt from island historian Enrique
Fajarnés’s memoirs, Lo que Ibiza me inspiró, provides a detailed
first-hand account of that fateful day’s events.
“The 29th of May, 1937 was a fair day, with that languidness
that characterizes late spring afternoons in Ibiza. A small German
warship, the Leopard, was tied up in
the harbour and an oil tanker, also German, was anchored in the bay.
Towards the middle of the afternoon, while on my way home, I met my
friend Domingo Ribas in la Marina.
He was overcome by a strange excitement. “Any minute a shower of bombs
is going to fall over Ibiza,” he said at the close of a brief
conversation. Was it a premonition? … Neither he nor I knew what awaited
us in a short space of time.
When I reached the Plaza de España I
saw a group of neighbours contemplating the sea with rapt interest.
Their curiosity was justified. Only minutes earlier the German
battleship Deutschland had lowered its anchor between s’Illa Negra
and es Daus. The visit seemed natural; two other ships from the
German war squadron were in Ibiza. But
soon, a long line of warships appeared on the horizon, blurred from the
haze of the calm afternoon.
Eight or nine silhouettes that seemed to be destroyers were quickly
approaching. One or two of them, however, must have been cruisers
judging from their large size. We all realized they were from the
Spanish Armada. They had come from the direction of
Cap de la Mola, having circled round Formentera,
and now occupied a large arc of the horizon. Obviously, they were
following the Deutschland, which seemed to be a hunted ship
seeking shelter in friendly waters.
The great majority of Ibiza’s population was incognizant of these
happenings. The appearance of the boats was quite sudden, visible only
to those of us who chanced to be near the eastern littoral. This
explains why the element of surprise was so great and why people were
caught unawares when the bombs began to fly.
Suddenly, the sound of airplanes could be heard in the sky. Two planes,
flying in twin formation, came out of the west, invading the air space
over the bay. The last rays of the evening sun flashed on their metallic
members; I clearly saw balls of incandescence fall from their bellies.
dark boom made me lower my gaze to the deck of the
Deutschland where several tall columns of black
smoke began to curl up into the air. The columns quickly merged into
one, revealing at their base an inferno of red flames issuing from the
centre of the German battleship. It was the ship’s plane – we later
learned – that had suddenly incinerated as it was preparing to take off.
Their mission accomplished, the visiting aircraft spun toward the south
As if that had been a predetermined signal, the squadron opened fire on
the city. My friend, Fermín Soriano, and I watched the bombing from
behind the parapet at the lookout point. Several jets of water suddenly
surged up around the oil-tanker which in the end was not hit; other
projectiles tore up the land around the lower part of the port toward
Talamanca. However none were aimed at
the Deutschland. Perhaps the Armada felt it had been ravaged
enough and feared its powerful artillery.
Outside my range of vision, a large number of projectiles rained down on
the harbour and the city. We could hear them whistling above our heads.
One fell in the northern corner of the
Plaza de la Constitutión, killing Miss Eulalia Noguera, called na
Noguereta, as well as an elderly woman. Another one fell in a rather
unprotected area of the wall at Portal Nou, where many people had
taken quick shelter. In a second the spot had turned into a bloodbath. I
believe some soldiers were killed there too. There was also one victim
on the Calle Mayor.
The bombing stopped as suddenly as it had started and the ships
disappeared. With the conflagration subdued, the
Deutschland made its way slowly to s’Espardell
[off Formentera]. Its smoke seemed to precipitate nightfall. The city
was full of people rushing about reporting the names of the dead and
wounded. Emotion was raw; some were affected more than others. My
uncle-in-law, Miguel Villalonga, became totally unhinged and temporarily
lost the power of speech.”
Fajarnés goes on to explain certain aspects of the aftermath of battle,
particularly those aspects related to the German presence. In brief, all
three of the German vessels withdrew from Ibicenco waters directly after
the battle, although the many wounded soldiers from the Deutschland
were received at the small hospital in Dalt Vila, some of them dying in
the following days from their burns. The Leopard returned to
Ibiza shortly afterwards to collect the bodies of the dead and then left
as quickly as it had come. Once again we have ended our instalment on a
rather fragile note, and I cannot promise anything too much better for
next week. Join us, if you care to or dare to, as we explore the
systematic, bloody and unjust eradication of all liberal sympathizers
from Pitiusan society. Until then.